Research & Publications

Our surveys and inventories have been used by both the business community to promote change and development and by the academic community to better understand the causes and outcomes of behavior within organizations.

The items below includes books, articles, research briefs, reports, and dissertations that describe either the reliability and validity of our products or ways in which our products have been used. Some articles are available on our website, while others are not due to copyright. Copies of books and research reports can be obtained by contacting the publishers; copies of articles can be obtained through university libraries or the inter-library loan system; and copies of dissertations can be obtained by contacting UMI Dissertation Services (phone: +1-800-521-0600; website: www.ProQuest.com).


RESEARCH BRIEFS

The framework, language, and understanding gained through implementing the OCI-OEI will help leaders, integration teams, and other subgroups practice and demonstrate constructive behaviors and interact more effectively.


Quick links


ACUMEN LEADERSHIP WORKSTYLES (LWS)

Leslie, Jean Brittain. Feedback to Managers: A Guide to Reviewing and Selecting Multirater Instruments for Leadership Development (4th ed.). Center for Creative Leadership (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.35613/ccl.2013.2038 [PDF]

McCabe, Melissa. “360-Degree Feedback: A Personal Case Study.” Paper presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Minds Conference, Rochester, MI, USA, May 2017. [PDF]

Wiley, Donna L. “Developing Managers in the Former Soviet Union.” International Studies of Management & Organizations, 24, no. 4 (1994): 64-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.1994.11656645

BUSHFIRE SURVIVAL SITUATION

Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C., and Katherine W. Phillips. “When What You Know Is Not Enough: Expertise and Gender Dynamics in Task Groups.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, no. 12 (2004): 1585–1598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271186 Summary articles: Kellogg-Northwestern and NYTimes

CASCADES SURVIVAL SITUATION

Szumal, Janet L. “How to Use Group Problem Solving Simulations to Improve Teamwork.” In The 2000 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2000). [PDF]

Szumal, Janet L. “Four Steps to Building Better Teams.” In The 2001 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2001). [PDF]

CONSTRUCTIVE NEGOTIATIONS CHALLENGE

Szumal, Janet L. “How to Use Group Problem Solving Simulations to Improve Teamwork.” In The 2000 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2000). [PDF]

Szumal, Janet L. “Four Steps to Building Better Teams.” In The 2001 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2001). [PDF]

CRITICAL THINKING CHALLENGE

Jeris, Laurel H. An Empirical Study of the Relationship Between Team Process Interventions and Double-Loop Learning. PhD diss., Northern Illinois University (1997).

CULTURE FOR DIVERSITY INVENTORY

Whitfield, Gwendolyn and Robert Landeros. “Supplier Diversity Effectiveness: Does Organizational Culture Really Matter?” The Journal of Supply Chain Management, 42, no. 4 (2006): 16-28. DOI: /10.1111/j.1745-493X.2006.00019.x [PDF]

DESERT SURVIVAL SITUATION

Dabbs, James M. and R. Berry Ruback. “Dimensions of Group Process: Amount and Structure of Vocal Interaction.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Leonard Berkowitz, Academic Press (1987): 123-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60413-X

Dyer, William G. Team Building: Issues and Alternatives (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley (1987). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/105960117700200421

Hauber, J., H. Regenbrecht, A. Hills, A. Cockburn, and M. Billinghurst. “Social Presence in Two- and Three-Dimensional Videoconferencing.” In Proceedings of the 8th Annual International Workshop on Presence. London (2005): 189-198.

Prebble, Richard. Out of the Red. The Letter Ltd (2006).

Rus, Diana, Daan van Knippenberg, and Barbara Wisse. “Leader Power and Self-Serving Behavior: The Moderating Role of Accountability.” The Leadership Quarterly, 23, no. 1 (2012): 13-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.11.002

Silberman, M. L. and Elain Biech. Active Training: A Handbook of Techniques, Designs, Case Examples and Tips. John Wiley & Sons (2015).

Szumal, Janet L. “Four Steps to Building Better Teams.” In The 2000 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2001).

Witte, Erich. H. “Toward a Group Facilitation Techniques for Project Teams.” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 10, no. 3 (2007): 299-309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430207078694

ETHICAL DECISION CHALLENGE

Szumal, Janet L. An Examination of the Multiple-Level Effects of Gender and Race on Group Problem Solving. PhD diss., University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995. DOI: 10.1353/dem.2008.0004

Szumal, Janet L. “How to Use Group Problem Solving Simulations to Improve Teamwork.” In The 2000 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2000).

GROUP STYLES INVENTORY (GSI)

Aqlan, Faisal, Qi Dunsworth, and Mary L. Kahl. “Integrating Soft Skill Development into a Manufacturing Systems Course.” 2018 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition. Pennsylvania, PA, USA (2018). https://peer.asee.org/30688

Balthazard, Pierre A., Richard E. Potter, and John Warren. “The Effects of Extraversion and Expertise on Virtual Team Interaction and Performance.” In HICSS 2002, (2002): 269. https://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2002/1435/08/14350269abs.htm

Balthazard, Pierre A, Richard E. Potter, and John Warren. “Expertise, Extraversion and Group Interaction Styles as Performance Indicators in Virtual Teams: How Do Perceptions of IT’s Performance Get Formed?” Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, 35, no. 1 (2004):41-64. https://doi.org/10.1145/968464.968469

Balthazard, Pierre A., David A. Waldman, and Leeanne E. Atwater. “The Mediating Effects of Leadership and Interaction Style in Face-to-Face and Virtual Teams.” In Leadership at a Distance: Research in Technologically-Supported Work, edited by Suzanne P. Weisband. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers (2008): 127-150.

Balthazard, Pierre A., David Waldman, Jane Howell, and Leanne Atwater. “Shared Leadership and Group Interaction Styles in Problem-Solving Virtual Teams.” Proceedings for the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Hawaii, USA (January 2004): 37. [Link]

Balthazard, Pierre A., David Waldman, and John E. Warren. “Predictors of the Emergence of Transformational Leadership in Virtual Decision Teams.” The Leadership Quarterly, 20, no. 5 (2009): 651-663. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.008

Cooke, Robert A., and Janet L. Szumal. “The Impact of Group Interaction Styles on Problem-Solving Effectiveness.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30, no. 4 (1994): 415-437. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886394304005

Jeris, Laurel H. An Empirical Study of the Relationship Between Team Process Interventions and Double-Loop Learning. PhD diss., Northern Illinois University 1997.

Potter, Richard E. and Pierre Balthazard. “Understanding Human Interactions and Performance in the Virtual Team JITTA.” Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, 4, no. 1 (2002): 1-23. [Link]

Potter, Richard E., and Pierre A. Balthazard. “Virtual Team Interaction Styles: Assessment and Effects.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 56, no. 4 (2002): 423–443. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.2002.1001

Potter, R. E., Robert A. Cooke, and Pierre A. Balthazard. “Virtual Team Interaction: Assessment, Consequences, and Management.” Team Performance Management, 6, no. 7-8 (2000): 131- 137. DOI: 10.1108/13527590010379558

Szumal, Janet L. An Examination of the Multiple-Level Effects of Gender and Race on Group Problem Solving. PhD diss., University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995. https://www.proquest.com/docview/304223483?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true

Szumal, Janet L. “Four Steps to Building Better Teams.” In The 2000 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, McGraw Hill (2001). [PDF]

LEADERSHIP/IMPACT (L/I)

Cooke, Robert A. and Linda L. Sharkey. “Developing Constructive Leader Impact.” Consulting Today (2006): 1-3.

Leslie, Jean Brittain. Feedback to Managers: A Guide to Reviewing and Selecting Multirater Instruments for Leadership Development (4th ed.). Center for Creative Leadership (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.35613/ccl.2013.2038 [PDF]

Fuda, Peter. Leadership Transformed: How Ordinary Managers Become Extraordinary Leaders. New Harvest (2013). http://www.peterfuda.com/leadership-transformed-book/

Masi, Ralph J. and Robert A. Cooke. “Effects of Transformational Leadership on Subordinate Motivation, Empowering Norms, and Organizational Productivity.” International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8, no. 1 (2000): 16-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/eb028909

Szumal, Janet L. (Ed.), “The Impact of Leaders and Managers Across and Within Different Countries,” 2014, https://www.humansynergistics.com/docs/default-source/research-publications/impact_ldr_mgr_across_countries.pdf

Szumal, Janet L. “The Essence of Leadership,” 2002, https://www.humansynergistics.com/docs/default-source/research-publications/the-essence-of-leadership.pdf

Szumal, Janet L. “An International Study of the Reliability and Validity of Leadership/Impacttm (L/I).” 2002, https://www.humansynergistics.com/docs/default-source/research-publications/livalidity.pdf

Szumal, Janet L. “High Potential…to Do What?” (2012), https://www.humansynergistics.com/docs/default-source/research-publications/high-potential-to-do-what-szumal-v-1-0.pdf

LIFE STYLES INVENTORY (LSI)

Boglarsky, Cheryl A. and Catherine T. Kwantes. “Conflict Perceptions and Their Role in Manager’s Choice of Resolution Style.” Fourth Biennial Conference on Intercultural Research, Kent, OH, USA (2005).

Boglarsky, Cheryl A. and Catherine T. Kwantes. “Who is Happy and Why? Subjective Well-Being and Associated Thinking Styles of US and Canadian students.” 17th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2005).

Butler, Andrea M., Catherine T. Kwantes and Cheryl A. Boglarsky. “The Effects of Self-Awareness on Perceptions of Leadership Effectiveness in the Hospitality Industry: A Cross Cultural Investigation.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 40, May (2014): 87-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.12.007

Cleary, Michael J. “Thinking Styles of Supervisors and Implications for Student Teaching.” The Teacher Educator, 24, no. 1 (2010): 16-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878738809554929eary, M. J. (1988). Thinking styles of supervisors and implications for student teaching. The Teacher Educator, 24, 16-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878738809554929

Cooke, Robert A., J. Clayton Lafferty, and Denise M. Rousseau. “Thinking and Behavioral Styles: Consistency Between Self-Descriptions and Descriptions by Others.” Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, no. 3 (1987): 815-823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001316448704700336

Cooke, Robert A., and Denise M. Rousseau. “Relationship of Life Events and Personal Orientations to Symptoms of Strain.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, no. 3 (1983): 446-458. DOI: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.68.3.446

Cooke, Robert A., and Denise M. Rousseau. “The Factor Structure of Level 1: Life Styles Inventory.” Educational and Psychological Measurement, 43, no. 3 (1983): 449-457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/001316448704700336oke, R. A., & Rousseau, D. M. (1983). Relationship of life events and personal orientations to symptoms of strain. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 446-458.

Gallo, Frank T. (2010). Business Leadership in China: How to Blend Best Western Practices with Chinese Wisdom, Revised Edition. John Wiley and Sons. [Link]

Grant, Anthony M, L. S. Green, and Josephine Rynsaardt. “Developmental Coaching for High School Teachers: Executive Coaching Goes to School.” Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62, no. 3 (2010): 151-168. DOI: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0019212

Gratzinger, Peter D., Ronald A. Warren, and Robert A. Cooke. “Psychological Orientations and Leadership: Thinking Styles That Differentiate Between Effective and Ineffective Managers.” In Measures of Leadership, edited by Kenneth E. Clark and Miriam B. Clark, 239-247. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership, 1990.

Howard, Wayne H., George L. Brinkman, and Remy Lambert.  “Thinking Styles and Financial Characteristics of Selected Canadian Farm Managers.”  Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue Canadienne d’Agroeconomie, 45, July (2005): 39-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7976.1997.tb00157.x

Human Synergistics. Improving Store Management Effectiveness. Coca Cola Retailing Research Council. https://www.ccrrc.org/councils/north-america-large-store/improving-store-management-effectiveness

Jones, Quentin. “Coaching with LSI.” In Psychometrics in Coaching: Using Psychological and Psychometric Tools for Development, edited by Jonathon Passmore, Kogan Page, 2008.

Klisz, Eric. “Life Styles Inventory™ & Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®: A Comparison of Two Surveys.” Human Synergistics, 2005.

Lawson, Dan. “Analysis and Use of the Life Styles Inventory 1 and 2 by Human Synergistics International. In Online Instruments, Data Collection, and Electronic Measurements: Organizational Advancements, edited by Mihai C. Borcarnea, Rodney A. Reynolds and Jason D. Baker, 76-96. Hershey, PA USA: IGI Global, 2013. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2172-5.ch005

Leak, Gary K. “An Examination of the Construct Validity of the Social Anhedonia Scale.” Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, no. 1 (1991): 84-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5601_8

Leak, Gary K., Richard J. Millard, Nancy W. Perry and Dale E. Williams. “An Investigation of the Nomological Network of Social Interest.” Journal of Research in Personality, 19, no. 2 (1985): 197-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(85)90028-5

Leslie, Jean Brittain. Feedback to Managers: A Guide to Reviewing and Selecting Multirater Instruments for Leadership Development (4th ed.). Center for Creative Leadership (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.35613/ccl.2013.2038 [PDF]

Masi, Ralph J. “Transformational Leadership and Its Roles in Empowerment, Productivity, and Commitment to Quality.” Phd diss. University of Illinois at Chicago, (1994).

Masi, Ralph J. and Robert A. Cooke. “Effects of Transformational Leadership on Subordinate Motivation, Empowering Norms, and Organizational Productivity.” International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8, no. 1 (2000): 16-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb028909.

McAteer, Teal, Meghan Early, and Roberta Assaf. “Should We Start Coaching Young Leaders Through Transformative Learning Experiences Before They Enter the Workplace?” Journal of Transformative Learning, 8, no. 2, (2021): 100–122. https://jotl.uco.edu/index.php/jotl/article/view/417/358

McCabe, Melissa. “360-Degree Feedback: A Personal Case Study.” Paper presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Minds Conference, Rochester, MI, USA, May 2017. [PDF]

Nediger, William G. and Packianathan Chelladurai. “Life Styles Inventory: Its Applicability in the Canadian Context.” Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, no. 4 (1989): 901-909. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316448904900413

Prebble, Richard. Out of the Red. Rotorua NZ (2006).

Ray, Roxanne and Eric Sanders. “Strategic Leadership of Cultural Transformation at Advocate Health Care.” In Strategic Organization Development: Managing Change for Success, edited by Therese F. Yaeger and Peter F. Sorensen, Charlotte NC: Information Age Publishing, 2009.

Schiller, M. Rosita, Mary Beth Foltz, and Sheila M. Campbell. “Dietitians’ Self-Perceptions: Implications for Leadership.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 93, no. 8 (1993): 868-876. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8223(93)91523-S

Skenes, Robert E., and Catherine A. Honing. “Pretest/Posttest Use of the Life Styles Inventory for Outcomes Assessment of a Professional Master’s in Managerial Leadership Program.” Group and Organization Management, 29, no. 2, (2004): 171-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601103262043

Szumal, Janet L., Cheryl A.Boglarsky, and Robert A. Cooke. “Thinking and Behavioral Styles as Described by Self Versus Others: A Replication and Extension with Male and Female Managers.” Management Review Quarterly, 72, no. 3 (2021):1-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11301-021-00210-3 PDF article summary & abstract

Szumal, Janet L. and Robert A. Cooke. “Increasing Personal Success and Effectiveness: Thinking and Behavioral Styles at Work.” In The 2004 Training and Performance Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Patricia Philips, Princeton, NJ: Active Training (2004).

Ware, Mark E., Gary K. Leak and Nancy W. Perry. “Life Styles Inventory: Evidence for its Factorial Validity.” Psychological Reports, 56, no. 3 (1985): 963-968. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1985.56.3.963

Ware, Mark. E. and Nancy W. Perry. “Facilitating Growth in a Personal Development Course.” Psychological Reports, 60, no. 2 (1987): 491-500. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1987.60.2.491

Wasylyshyn, Karol M. Behind the Executive Door: Unexpected Lessons for Managing Your Boss and Career. New York, NY: Springer (2012).

Williams, Harry. “Developing a Positive Organisational Culture Using a Management Development Strategy.” Australian Health Review, 25, no. 6 (2002): 190-193. https://doi.org/10.1071/ah020190

MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS PROFILE SYSTEM (MEPS)

Cooke, R. A. (1989). Assessing managerial effectiveness with the Management Effectiveness Profile System. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, 723-732.

Leslie, J. B. (2013). Feedback to managers: A guide to reviewing and selecting multirater instruments for leadership development (4th ed.). Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. [PDF]

MANAGEMENT/IMPACT (M/I)

Leslie, J. B. (2013). Feedback to managers: A guide to reviewing and selecting multirater instruments for leadership development (4th ed.). Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. [PDF]

Szumal, J.L. (Ed.). (2014). The Impact of Leaders and Managers Across and Within Different Countries. [PDF]

Szumal, J.L. (2010). High Potential…to Do What? [PDF]

Szumal, J.L. (2012). The Reliability and Validity of Management/Impact® (M/I). [PDF]

OBSERVER’S GUIDE

Kernaghan, J. A., & Cooke, R. A. (1987). The relationship of group process factors to the quality and acceptance of group output. International Journal of Small Group Research, 3, 39-61.

Kernaghan, J. A., & Cooke, R. A. (1990). Teamwork in planning innovative projects: Improving group performance by rational and interpersonal interventions in group process. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 37, 109-116.

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE INVENTORY (OCI)

• Investigates the link between organizational culture and effective human services delivery. • Traces the historical development of the organizational culture-performance link, contributing to understanding organizational culture in the human services sector. • Utilizes quantitative analysis with the OCI in a faith-based child welfare agency, delineating a positive link between organizational culture and service delivery.

Focus: Organizational Culture, Culture-Performance Link, Human Services, Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI), Foster Care Services.

• Demonstrates the use of mixed methods with employees in a faith-based child welfare agency to examine organizational culture’s impact on service delivery. • Illustrates the application of concurrent triangulation, combining surveys, focus groups, documental review, and ethnography. • Emphasizes the need for new managerial approaches to foster a constructive culture in child welfare organizations.

Focus: Mixed Methods, Concurrent Triangulation, Child Welfare, Organizational Ethnography, Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI)

• Research explores a leadership “missing link” for enhanced contributions through highly Constructive cultures. • Study highlights the crucial connection between Constructive culture, financial success, and leadership impact. • The OCI, OCI Ideal, and CEO Interviews reveal traits of inspiring leaders and emphasize the lasting impact of strongly Constructive cultures.

Focus: Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI), OCI Ideal, Leadership development, Constructive cultures, Community commitment, Leadership impact

Arbour, Simone, Catherine T. Kwantes, Joanna M. Kraft, and Cheryl A. Boglarsky. “Person-Organization Fit: Using Normative Behaviors to Predict Workplace Satisfaction, Stress and Intentions to Stay.” Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 185, no. 2 (2014): 41-64. [PDF]

Arshad, Muhammad. “A Study of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness of Secondary Schools.” PhD diss., University of the Punjab, Lahore (2003). [PDF]

Balthazard, Pierre A., and Robert A. Cooke. “Organizational Culture and Knowledge Management Success: Assessing the Behavior-Performance Continuum.” Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Hawaii, USA (January 2004): 10. DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2004.1265577

Balthazard, Pierre A., Robert A. Cooke, and Richard E Potter. “Dysfunctional Culture, Dysfunctional Organization: Capturing the behavioral Norms That Form Organizational Culture and Drive Performance.” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, no. 8 (December 2006): 709-732. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940610713253

Bellot, Jennifer. “Nursing Home Culture Change: What Does It Mean to Nurses?” Research in Gerontological Nursing, 5, no. 4 (October 2012): 264-273. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3928/19404921-20120906-02

Boglarsky, Cheryl A. “Five Steps to a Successful Merger/Acquisition.” Workspan, (February 2005): 50-52. [PDF]

Boglarsky, Cheryl A. and Catherine T. Kwantes. “Ideal and Actual Culture: How Different is Too Different?” Presented at the 65th Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, June 2004.

Bowen, R. Bravton. “Cultural Alignment and Risk Management: Developing the Right Culture.” In QFinance: The Ultimate Resource, edited by Qatar Financial Center. A&C Black, 2014.

Brown, William S. “Organizational Culture, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance at Research Facilities.” United States, 2000.

Chaudhry, Anjali, Ling Yuan, Jia Hu, and Robert A. Cooke. “What Matters More? The Impact of Industry and Organizational Factors on Organizational Culture.” Management Decision, 54, no. 3 (2016): 570-588. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-05-2015-0192

Cocchiola, Frank A. “The Impact of Grade Organization on the Organizational Culture of Junior-Senior and Senior High Schools.” EdD diss. Fordham University, (1990).

Community of Practice Culture Validation Team (2004). Nuclear Plant Optimal Culture Report. Overland Park KS: Utility Service Alliance. [PDF]

Cooke, Robert A. and Denise M. Rousseau. “Behavioral Norms and Expectations: A Quantitative Approach to the Assessment of Organizational Culture.” Group & Organization Studies, 13, no. 3 (1988): 245-273. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/105960118801300302

Cooke, Robert A., and Janet L. Szumal. “Using the Organizational Culture Inventory to Understanding the Operating Cultures of Organizations.” In The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate, edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy, Celeste P.M. Wilderom, and Mark F. Peterson, 147-162. Sage (2000). [PDF]

Cooke, Robert A., and Janet L. Szumal. “Measuring Normative Beliefs and Shared Behavioral Expectations in Organizations: The Reliability and Validity of the Organizational Culture Inventory.” Psychological Reports, 72, no. 3 (1993): 1299-1330. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1993.72.3c.1299 [PDF]

Corbett, Lawrence M. and Kate N. Rastrick. “Quality Performance and Organizational Culture: A New Zealand Study.” International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 17, no. 1 (2000): 14-26. https://doi.org/:10.1108/02656710010300126

Davidhizar, Ruth, and Makaila Bowen. “Helping the New Nurse Adjust to the OR Environment.” Today’s OR Nurse, 13 (1991): 18-21.

Eppard, Randy G. “Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles as They Predict Constructive Culture and Defensive Culture.” PhD diss., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2004. [PDF]

Flaherty-Zonis, Carol. “Building Culture Strategically: A Team Approach for Corrections.” Washington DC: US Department of Justice (2007). [Link]

Gannod, Gerald C., William F. Eberle, Douglas A. Talbert, Robert A. Cooke, Kathy Hagler, Kathy Opp, and Jasmin Baniya. “Establishing an Agile Mindset and Culture for Workforce Preparedness: A Baseline Study.” 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) 1-9 (2018). 10.1109/FIE.2018.8658712. [Article Summary & Abstract [PDF]

García-Herrero, Susana, M. A. Mariscal, J. M. Gutiérrez, and Antonio Toca-Otero. “Bayesian Network Analysis of Safety Culture and Organizational Culture in a Nuclear Power Plant.” Safety Science, 53 (2013): 82-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.09.004

Gaucher, Ellen and Eric W. Kratochwill. “The Leader’s Role in Implementing Total Quality Management.” Quality Management in Health Care, 1, no. 3 (1993): 10-18.

Glaspie, Regina and Mary Nesbitt. What Makes a Newspaper Ready to Innovate? Evanston IL: Readership Institute, Northwestern University (2004). [PDF]

Glisson, Charles and Lawrence R. James. “The Cross-Level Effects of Culture and Climate in Human Service Teams.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, no. 6 (September 2002): 767-794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.162

Guidet, Bertrand and Vicente Gonzalez-Roma. “Climate and Cultural Aspects in Intensive Care Units.” Critical Care, 15, no. 6 (2011): 312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc10361

Gundry, Lisa Karin. “Critical Incidents in Organizational Cultures: The Enculturation of Newcomers in Organizations.” PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1987. [PDF]

Haber, Sonja B., J. N. O’Brien, D. S. Metley, and D. A. Crouch. “Influence of Organizational Factors on Performance Reliability.” No. NUREG/CR-5538-Vol. 1; BNL-NUREG-52301-Vol. 1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States), 1991. https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10111042

Haber, Sonia B., and Deborah A. Shurberg. “Safety Culture in the Nuclear and Non-Nuclear Organization.” Paper presented at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Risk Management, Boston, MA, USA, June 1992. [PDF]

Haber, S. D., & Shurberg, D. A. (1992). Organizational culture during the accident response process. In Knief, R. A. (Ed.), Topical meeting on risk management. La Grange Park, IL: American Nuclear Society, pp. 152-156. [Link]

Head, T. C. “Organization Development and the People’s Republic of China: An Interesting Partnership.” OD Practitioner, 1 (2002): 38-42.

Human Synergistics. Improving Store Management Effectiveness. Atlanta, GA: Coca-Cola Retailers’ Research Council, 1986.

Ingersoll, Gail L., Lois Wagner, Sonna E. Merck, Janet Kirsch, Joseph C., Hepworth, and Mamie Williams. “Patient-Focused Redesign and Employee Perception of Work Environment.” Nursing Economics, 20, no. 4 (2002): 163-187.

Jablonski, Joseph R. Implementing Total Quality Management: Competing in the 1990’s. Albuquerque, NM: Technical Management Consortium, 1990.

Jaeger, Michael. Personalmanagement bei Mergers & Acquisitions-Strategien Instrumente Erfolgsfaktoren. Hermann Luchterhand Verlag GmbH, Neuwied, Kriftel, 2001, pp. 76-82.

Kartolo, Arief B. “Perceived Organizational Discrimination. Its Societal Antecedents, Individual Outcomes, and the Effects of Organizational Culture Across Contexts.” MA thesis. University of Windsor, ON, CA, 2016. [Link]

Kartolo, Arief B. and Catherine T. Kwantes. “Organizational Culture, Perceived Societal and Organizational Discrimination.” Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 38, no. 6 (2019): 602-618. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-10-2018-0191

Keenan, Gail M. “Nurse Management of Conflicts with Physicians in Emergency Rooms.” PhD diss, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1994. [Link]

Keenan, Gail M., Robert A. Cooke, and Stephen L. Hillis. “Norms and Nurse Management of Conflicts: Keys to Understanding Nurse-Physician Collaboration.” Research in Nursing and Health, 21, no.1 (1998): 59-72. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1098-240x(199802)21:1<59::aid-nur7>3.0.co;2-s

Klein, Andrew. “Corporate Culture: Its Value as a Resource for Competitive Advantage.” Journal of Business Strategy, 32, no. 2 (2011): 21-28. DOI: 10.1108/02756661111109743

Klein, Andrew S., Ralph J. Masi, and C. Ken Weidner. “Organizational Culture, Distribution and Amount of Control, and Perceptions of Quality.” Group & Organization Management, 20, no. 2 (1995): 122-148. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601195202004

Klein, Martin I. “Corporate Culture and Store Performance: Differences Among High Performance and Low Performance Stores.” PhD diss., Philadelphia: Temple University, 1992. [Link]

Klein, Rochelle. L., Gregory A. Bigley, and Karlene H. Roberts. “Organizational Culture in High Reliability Organizations: An Extension.” Human Relations, 48, no. 7 (1995): 771-793. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679504800703

Kosmoski-Goepfert, Kerry A. “Effects of Registered Nurses’ Work Design on Hospital Unit Culture, Quality, and Cost of Patient Care.” PhD. diss. University of Illinois at Chicago, 1994.

Kwantes, Catherine T., and Cheryl A. Boglarsky. “Do Occupational Groups Vary in Expressed Organizational Culture Preferences? A Study of Six Occupations in the United States.” International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 4, no. (3) (2004): 335-353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595804047814

Kwantes, Catherine T. and & Cheryl A. Boglarsky. “Individual Level Outcomes of the Relationship Between Social and Organizational Cultures.” Presented at the International Association of Cross Cultural Psychology Sixth European Regional Congress, Budapest, Hungary, 2003.

Kwantes, Catherine T. and & Cheryl A. Boglarsky. “Organizational Cultures Across National Boundaries: Results of a Cluster Analysis.” Applied Multivariate Research, 12, no. 2 (2006): 107-124.

Kwantes, Catherine T. and Cheryl A. Boglarsky. “Perceptions of Organizational Culture, Leadership Effectiveness and Personal Effectiveness Across Six Countries.” Journal of International Management, 13, no. 2 (2007): 204-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2007.03.002

Kwantes, Catherine T., Cheryl A. Boglarsky. and Ben C. H. Kuo. “Local Adaptations of a Global Organizational Culture: Do Differences in Social Culture Make Any Difference?” Asian Journal of Arts and Sciences, 1, no. 1 (2010): 42-65.

Kwantes, Catherine T. and Marcus W. Dickson. “Organizational Culture in a Societal Context: Lessons from GLOBE and Beyond.” In N. Ashkanasy, C. Wilderom, & M. F. Peterson (Eds.), Chapter 28, The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. Second Edition, 494 – 514. Sage (2011).

Lahiry, Sugato. “Building Commitment Through Organizational Culture.” Training and Development Journal, 48, no. 4 (1994): 50-52. [PDF]

Manzoni, Jean-Francois and Jean-Pierre Baillot. Changing the Corporate Culture at AXA: The Long and Winding Road. HBS No. IN1189-PDF-ENG, July 29, 2013). Harvard Business School Publishing. [Link]

Masi, Ralph J. and Robert A. Cooke. “Effects of Transformational Leadership on Subordinate Motivation, Empowering Norms, and Organizational Productivity.” International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8, no. 1 (2000): 16-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb028909

McDaniel, Charlotte. “Organizational Culture and Ethics Work Satisfaction.” The Journal of Nursing Administration, 25, no. 11 (1995): 15-21.

McHugh, Gabrielle. “An Examination of the Influence of Culture, Climate and Leadership as Drivers of a Healthy Workplace.” PhD diss., The University of Northern British Columbia, 2012. [Link]

Minvielle, Etienne, Philippe Aegerter, Benoît Dervaux, Ariane Boumendil, Aurélia Retbi, Marie Claude Jars-Guincestre, and Bertrand Guidet. “Assessing Organizational Performance in Intensive Care Units: A French Experience.” Journal of Critical Care, 23, no. 2 (2008): 236–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2007.11.006

Murphy, Patrick. J., Robert A. Cooke, and Yvette Lopez. “Firm Culture and Performance: Intensity’s Effects and Limits.” Management Decision, 51, no. 3 (2013): 661-679. DOI: 10.1108/00251741311309715 [Summary & Abstract]

Nath, Yvonne. The Book on Law Firm Culture. Independently Published (2021). [Link]

Osinubi, Omowunmi YO, Sampada K. Gandhi, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Cheryl Boglarsky, Nancy Fiedler, Howard Kipen, and Mark Robson. “Organizational Factors and Office Workers’ Health after the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks: Long-Term Physical Symptoms, Psychological Distress, and Work Productivity.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50, no. 2 (2008): 112-125. https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0b013e31815e92bd [Link]

Pelieu, Iris, Juliette Djadi-Prat, Silla M Consoli, Alain Cariou, Bertrand Guidet, Cécile You-Harada, Virginie Paget, Guillaume Héraud, Claire Lefur, Adeline Massin, Marlène Hennequin, Pierre Durieux, Jean-Yves Fagon, and Christophe Faisy. “Impact of Organizational Culture on Preventability Assessment of Selected Adverse Events in the ICU: Evaluation of Morbidity and Mortality Conferences.” Intensive Care Medicine, 39, no. 7 (2013): 1214–1220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-013-2923-y

Pool, Steven W. “Organizational Culture and Its Relationship between Job Tension in Measuring Outcomes among Business Executives.” Journal of Management Development, 19, no. 1 (2000): 32-49. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710010308144 

Prebble, Richard. Out of the Red. Rotorua NZ (2006).

Rousseau, Denise M. “Normative Beliefs in Fund-Raising Organizations: Linking Culture to Organizational Performance and Individual Responses.” Group & Organization Studies, 15, no. 4 (1990): 448-460. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960119001500408

Rovithis, Michael, Manolis Linardakis, Anastasios Merkouris, and Anastas Philalithis. “Organizational Culture of Physicians on the Island of Crete.” Archives of Hellenic Medicine, 33, No. 2 (2016): 207-2016. [Link]

Rovithis, Michael, Manolis Linardakis, Nikos Rikos, Anastasios Merkouris, Elisabeth Patiraki and Anastas Philalithis. “Organizational Culture Among Nurses Working in the Public Health Sector on the Island of Crete – Greece.” Health Science Journal, 10, no. 2 (2016):1-11. 

Rovithis, M., Manolis Linardakis, Anastasios Merkouris, Elisabeth Patiraki, Maria Vassilaki, and Anastas Philalithis. “Organizational Culture Among Levels of Health Care Services in Crete (Greece).” Applied Nursing Research, 36, August (2017): 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2017.05.003

Sanders, Eric J. “The Human Frontier: Building an Inclusive Organizational Culture.” Journal of Organizational Psychology, 17, no. 1, (2017): 71-82.

Sanders, Eric J. and Robert A. Cooke. “Financial Returns from Organizational Culture Improvement: Translating “Soft” Changes into “Hard” Dollars.” Presented at the ASTD Expo in Orlando, FL, June 6, 2005. [PDF]

Sanfilippo, Fred, Kathleen H. Burns, Michael J. Borowitz, J. Brooks Jackson, and Ralph H. Hruban. “The Johns Hopkins Department of Pathology Novel Organizational Model: A 25-year-old Ongoing Experiment.” Academic Pathology, 5 (2018): 2374289518811145. https://doi.org/10.1177/2374289518811145

Sanfilippo, Fred, Neeli Bendapudi, Anthony Rucci, and Leonard Schlesinger. “Strong Leadership and Teamwork Drive Culture and Performance Change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000–2006.” Academic Medicine, 83, no. 9 (2008): 845-854.

Sarris, Aspa, and Neil Kirby. “Behavioral Norms and Expectations on Antarctic Stations.” Environment and Behavior, 39, no. 5 (2007): 706-723.

Scott, Tim, Russell Mannion, Huw Davies, and Martin Marshall. “The Quantitative Measurement of Organizational Culture in Health Care: A Review of the Available Instruments.” Health Services Research, 38, no. 3 (2003): 923-945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.00154

Schnier, Kathleen L. “Organizational Culture of Faculty Members at Regionally Accredited, Associate Degree-Granting, Proprietary Institutions.” PhD diss., Loyola University, 2004.

Shortell, Stephen M., Jack E. Zimmerman, Denise M. Rousseau, Robin R. Gillies, Douglas P. Wagner, Elizabeth A. Draper, William A. Kanus, and Joanne Duffy. “The Performance of Intensive Care Units: Does Good Management Make a Difference?” Medical Care, 32, no. 5 (1994), 508–525. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199405000-00009

Simosi, Maria. “The Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy in the Organizational Culture-Training Transfer Relationship.” International Journal of Training and Development, 16, no. 2 (2012): 92-106. https://doi/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2011.00396.x

Slowinski, Gene. “The Human Touch in Successful Strategic Alliances.” Advances in Mergers & Acquisitions, 27, no. 1 (1992): 44-47.

Szumal, Janet L. (2002). “Is Your Organization Experiencing a Culture Disconnect?” Human Synergistics (n.d.)

Szumal, Janet L. and Robert A. Cooke. “Organizational Climate Versus Culture: An Experiential Case Study.” In The 2003 Team and Organization Development Sourcebook, edited by Mel Silberman and Princeton, NJ: Active Training.

Szumal, Janet L. and Robert A. Cooke. Creating Constructive Cultures: Leading People and Organizations to Effectively Solve Problems and Achieve Goals. Human Synergistics International (2019). [Summary]

Thomas, C., Michael Ward, C. Chorba, and Andrew Kumiega. “Measuring and Interpreting Organizational Culture.” Journal of Nursing Administration, 20, no. 6 (1990): 17-24.

Thornbury, Jan F. (1994). “The Relationship Between Behavioral Norms, Organizational Culture, and the Ability to Assimilate Change.” London: KPMG Management Consulting.

United States Department of Energy, Organizational Cultural Assessment of the Solar Energy Research Institute. Report, 1991. DOE/EH-0208P (OSTI Identifier 5217665). Washington DC: USDOE. [Link]

United States Government Accountability Office. Aviation Acquisition: A Comprehensive Strategy Is Needed for Cultural Change at FAA. RCED-96-159: Published: Aug 22, 1996. Publicly Released: Aug 22, 1996.

United States Government Accountability Office. National Airspace Sysytem: Transformation will Require Cultural Change, Balanced Funding Priorities, and Use of All Available Management Tools. GAO-06-154: Published: Oct 14, 2005. Publicly Released: Nov 14, 2005.

Van Seaton, Hugh. “The Financial Implications and Organizational Culture Perceptions of Implementing a Performance Management System in a Government Enterprise.” PhD diss., University of North Florida, 2007.

van der Velde, Marjolijn and Michael D. Class. “The Relationship of Role Conflict and Ambiguity to Organizational Culture.” In Organizational Risk Factors for Job Stress, edited by Stephen L. Sauter and Lawrence R. Murphy, 53–59. American Psychological Association, 1995. https://doi.org/10.1037/10173-003

Wooten, Lynn Perry, and Patricia Crane. “Nurses as Implementers of Organizational Culture.” Nursing Economics, 21, no. 6 (2003): 275.

Xenikou, Athena and Adrian Furnham. “A Correlational and Factor Analytic Study of Four Questionnaire Measures of Organizational Culture.” Human Relations, 49, no. 3 (1996): 349-371. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726796049003

Yauch, Charlene A. and Harold J. Steudel. “Complementary Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Cultural Assessment Methods.” Organizational Research Methods, 6, no. 4 (2003): 465-481. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428103257362

Yauch, Charlene A. and Harold J. Steudel. “Cellular Manufacturing for Small Businesses: Key Cultural Factors That Impact the Conversion Process.” Journal of Operations Management, 20, no. 5 (2002): 593-617. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(02)00029-3

Zeine, Rana, Cheryl A. Boglarsky, Edward Daly, Patrick Blessinger, Mary Kurban and Alwyn Gilkes. “Considerate Leadership as a Measure of Effectiveness in Medical and Higher Education: Analysis of Supervisory/Managerial Leadership.” Organizational Cultures: An International Journal, 15, no. 1 (2014): 1-13. DOI: 10.18848/2327-8013/CGP/v15i01/50937

Zeine, Rana, Cheryl A. Boglarsky, Patrick Blessinger and Lukas Michel. “External Adaptability of Higher Education Institutions: The Use of Diagnostic Interventions to Improve Agility.” Change Management, 13, no. 4 (2014), 1-12.

Zeine, Rana, Frank Palatnick, Cheryl A. Boglarsky, Patrick Blessinger, Brad Herrick, and Michael T. Hamlet. “Customer Service Focus and Mission Articulation as Measures of Effectiveness in Higher Education Institutions: Driving Student Success.” Management Education: An International Journal, 14, no. 1 (2014): 1-10.

Zeine, Rana, Cheryl A. Boglarsky, Patrick Blessinger, and Michael Hamlet. “Organizational Culture in Higher Education.” In The Strategic Management of Higher Education Institutions: Serving Students as Customers for Institutional Growth, edited by Hamid Kazeroony, 19-38. Business Expert Press (2011).

Zimmerman, Jack. E., Stephen M Shortell, Denise M. Rousseau, Joanne Duffy, Robin R. Gillies, William A. Knaus, Kelly Devers, Douglas P. Wagner and Elizabeth A. Draper, “Improving Intensive Care: Observations Based on Organizational Case Studies in Nine Intensive Care Units: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.” Critical Care Medicine, 21, no. 10 (1994): 1443–1451.

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS INVENTORY (OEI)

Chaudhry, Anjali, Yuan, Ling, Hu, Jia, Cooke, Robert A., (2016). What matters more? The impact of industry and organizational factors on organizational culture.

Cooke, R. A., & Szumal, J. L. (2000). Using the Organizational Culture Inventory to understand the operating cultures of organizations.

Green, F.B. & Henderson, D.A. (2000). Nine ways to evaluate the effectiveness of your team-based organization. The Journal for Quality & Participation, 23(2), 36-39

Flanagan, P. (2003). Organizational culture and effectiveness: Critical factors for survival and success. O&P Business News, January 1, 11.

Mohammed, D., Chan, E., Ahmad, R., Dusic, A., Blessinger, P., Boglarsky, C.A. and Zeine, R. (2019). Health Implications of Job-related Stress, Motivation and Satisfaction in Higher Education Faculty and Administrators. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, ISSN: 2050-7003. DOI: 10.1108/JARHE-04-2018-0056

Murphy, P. J., Cooke, R. A., & Lopez, Y. (2013). Firm Culture and Performance: intensity’s effects and limits. Management Decision, 51 (3), 661-679. DOI: 10.1108/00251741311309715

Szumal, J.L. (2001). Reliability and Validity of the OEI. Arlington Heights, IL: Human Synergistics/Center for Applied Research.

Szumal, J. L. & Cooke, R.A. (2003). Organizational climate versus culture: An experiential case study. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2003 team and organization development sourcebook. Princeton, NJ: Active Training.

Zeine, R., Boglarsky, C. A., Blessinger, P. and Hamlet, M. T. (2011). Organizational Culture in Higher Education. Chapter 3 in Kazeroony, H. (Ed.), The Strategic management of higher education institutions: Serving students as customers for institutional growth. Williston, VT, USA: Business Expert Press.

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGE

Szumal, J. L. (2000). How to use group problem solving simulations to improve teamwork. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2000 team and organization development sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Szumal, J. L. (2001). Four Steps to Building Better Teams. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2001 team and organization development sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

PROJECT PLANNING SITUATION

Cooke, R. A., & Kernaghan, J. A. (1987). Estimating the difference between group versus individual performance on problem-solving tasks. Group & Organization Studies, 12, 319-342.

Kernaghan, J. A., & Cooke, R. A. (1987). The relationship of group process factors to the quality and acceptance of group output. International Journal of Small Group Research, 3, 39-61.

Kernaghan, J. A., & Cooke, R. A. (1990). Teamwork in planning innovative projects: Improving group performance by rational and interpersonal interventions in group process. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 37, 109-116.

Szumal, J. L. (2000). How to use group problem solving simulations to improve teamwork. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2000 Team and organization development sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Szumal, J. L. (2001). Four Steps to Building Better Teams. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2001 team and organization development sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

STRESS PROCESSING REPORT (SPR)

Cooke, R. A. (1986). Measuring stressful thinking styles: An analysis of the Stress Processing Report-Form II. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 275-282.

Cooke, R. A., Rousseau, D. M., & Lafferty, J. C. (1988). Personal orientations and their relation to psychological and physiological symptoms of strain. Psychological Reports, 62, 223-238.

Duvall, Cheryl King. (2001). The relationship between thinking patterns and physiological symptoms of stress. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 29, 537-545.

Lynn, Martha A. (1988). The effect of a cognitive reframing stress management workshop on thinking styles within an organizational setting (bank officers). University of Missouri- Kansas City (Ph.D. Dissertation).

Shelton, C. D., Hein, S., & Phipps, K. A. (2019). Resilience and spirituality: A mixed methods exploration of executive stress. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 28(2), 399-416. doi: http://dx.doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.1108/IJOA-08-2019-1848. DOI: 10.1108/IJOA-08-2019-1848

Szumal, J.L. (2002). Are you a stress magnet?

SUBARCTIC SURVIVAL SITUATION

Cooke, R. A., & Szumal, J. L. (1994). The impact of group interaction styles on problem-solving effectiveness. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30, 415-437.

Dyer, W. G. (1987). Team building: Issues and alternatives (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p. 75.

Melvin, V. (2017). What Can Lawyers Learn From Surviving a (Simulated) Plane Crash Together? NALP Bulletin, 2017(11), 11-13.

Szumal, J. L. (2000). How to use group problem solving simulations to improve teamwork. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2000 team and organization development sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Szumal, J. L. (2001). Four Steps to Building Better Teams. In Silberman, M., & Philips, P. (Eds.) The 2001 team and organization development sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.